ON A FUZZY APPLICATION OF THE PARTICULATE MATTERS ESTIMATION

Document Type: Research Paper

Authors

1 Department of Mathematics, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler, Istanbul, Turkey

2 Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Yildiz Technical University, Yildiz Campus, Istanbul, Turkey

Abstract

The Bosphorus (Istanbul Strait) that connects the continents of Europe and Asia is too complex due to geographical conditions and have a continuously increasing maritime traffic. The length of the Bosphorus which connect the Black Sea and the  Marmara Sea is 29.9 km. The number of ships (Tanker, general Cargo and bulk carrier) passing through the Istanbul strait was recorded as 42553 in 2016 and these transit ships cause more than half of the amount total ship emissions in the Bosphorus. The aim of this study is to estimate the PM amounts emitted from transit vessels passing through the Bosphorus by using fuzzy inference system in MATLAB. Total emissions from ships are expressed by surfaces allowing the analysis of the data according to the gross tonnage and the types of ships.

Keywords


[1] L. Bilgili, U. B. Celebi, G. B. Alkan, S. B. Caglak and G. Koralturk, Comparison of dif-
ferent ship emission estimation methodologies for annual emission footprint and reduction
techniques of a bulk carrier, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 23(7) (2014), 1498{1510.
[2] L. Bilgili and U. B. Celebi, Emission estimation of cargo ships according to ship main
dimensions and annual emission footprint calculation, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin,
24(3) (2015), 1054{1062.
[3] L. Bilgili, U. B. Celebi, S. Chatzinikolaou and N. Ventikos, Painting and operation emission
estimation of a ship from a life cycle perspective, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 26(1)
(2017), 183{187.
[4] K. Capaldo , J. J. Corbett , P. Kasibhatla , P. S. Fischbeck and S. N. Pandis, Effects of
ship Emissions on Sulphur Cycling and Radiative Climate Forcing over Ocean Nature, 400
(1999), 743{746.
[5] J. S. Carlton, G. L. Reynolds, A. A. Wright, S. D. Danton and A. D. Webster , Marine Ex-
haust Emissions: Result from Shipboard Measurements and Regional Surveys, Proceedings
of ISME Yokohama95, Japan 1 (1995), 57{67.
[6] J. Corbett, P. Fischbeck and S. Pandis, Global Nitrogen and Sulphur Inventories for Ocean-
going Ships, J Geophys Res, 104 (1999), 3457{3470.
[7] J. Corbett and H. Koehler, Updated Emissions from Ocean Shipping, J Geohys Res, 108(20)
(2003), (9-1){(9-13).
[8] M.J. Daniels, F. Dominici, Jonathan M. Samet S. L. Zeger, Estimating Particulate matter-
Mortality Dose-Response Curves and Threshold Levels: An Analysis of daily Time-Series
for 20 Largest Us Cities, American Journal of Epidemiology, 152(5) (2000), 397{406.
[9] C. Deniz and A. Kilic, Estimation and assessment of shipping emissions in the region
of ambarl port, Turkey, Int. J. General Systems,Environmental Progress and Sustainable
Energy 29(1) (2010) 107{115.
[10] C. Deniz, A. Kilic and G. Civkaroglu, Estimation of shipping emissions in Candarli Gulf,
Turkey, Environ Monit Assess ,171(2010), 219{228.
[11] C. Deniz and D. Yalcin, Estimating Shipping Emissions in the Region of the Sea of Mar-
mara, Turkey Science of the Total Environment , 390 (2008), 255{261.
[12] O. Endresen, E. Sorgard, J.K. Sundet, S.B. Dalsoren, ISA Isaksen, T.F. Berglen, G. Gravir,
Emissions from International Sea Transportation and Environmental Impact, J Geophys
Res, 108(17)4560(2003), (14-1){(14-22).
[13] W. Huang, L. Ding, S. Oh, C. Jeong, S. Joo, Identi cation of Fuzzy Inference System
Based on Information Granulation, KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems,
4(4)(2010), 575{594.
[14] W. Huang, S. Oh, L. Ding, H. Kim, S. Joo, Identifi cation of Fuzzy Inference Systems Using a
Multi-objective Space Search Algorithm and Information Granulation , Journal of Electrical
Engineering and Technology, 6(6)(2011), 853{866.
[15] W. Huang and Sung-Kwun Oh Identi fication of Fuzzy Inference Systems by Means of a
Multiobjective Opposition-Based Space Search Algorithm, Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Mathematical Problems in Engineering Volume, 2013 (2013), 1{13.

[16] O. Isin and E. Uzunsoy, Predicting the Exhaust Emissions of a Spark Ignition Engine Using
Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, Arab J Sci Eng, 38(12) (2013), 3485-3493.
[17] U. Kesgin and N. Vardar, A study on Exhaust gas Emissions from Ships in Turkish Straits
, Atmospheric Environment, 35 (2001), 1863{1870.
[18] A. Kilic, Marmara Denizinde Gemilerden Kaynaklanan Egzoz Emisyonlar, BA FBE Dergisi,
11(2) (2009), 124{134.
[19] A. Kilic and E. Tzannatos, Ship Emissions and Their Externalities at the Container Ter-
minal, Int. J. Environ. Res., 8(4) (2014), 1329{1340.
[20] J.Moldanova, E. Fridell, O. Popovicheva, B. Demirdjian, V. Tishkova, A. Faccinetto, C.
Focsa, Characterisation of Particulate Matter and Gaseous Emissions From a Large ship
Diesel Engine, Atmosferic Env. , 43 (2009), 2632{2641.
[21] K. Onagawa, Study on Impact of air pollutions emitted from Ships in Tokyo Bay Area,
Proceedings MARIENV95 Japan, 2 (1995), 824{829.
[22] L. Qinbin, D. Jacob, I. Bey, P. Palmer, B. Duncan, B. Field , et al., Transatlantic Transport
of Pollution and its effects on surface ozone in Europe and Nort America, J Geophys Res.
, doi:10.1029/2001JD001422, 107(13) (2002), (4-1)-(4-21).
[23] H. Saracoglu, C. Deniz and A. Kilic, An Investigation on the Effects of Ship Sourced Emis-
sions in Izmir Port, Turkey, Hindawi Publishing Corporation The Scientifi c World Journal
Volume 2013 (2013), 1{8.
[24] H. Saxea and T. Larsena, Air Pollution from Ships in three Danish Ports, Atmos Environ
, 38 (2004), 4057{4067.
[25] K.O. Skjolsvik, A. B. Andersen Ab, J.J. Corbett, J. M. Skjelvik, Study on Green House
Gas Emissions from Ships, MT rep Mtoo A23-038 Trondheim Norway MARINTEK,2 (31)
(2000), 1{169.
[26] Y. Sohret , I. Yazar and T. H. Karako Using some performance parameters to predict ex-
haust gas emissions of a turboprop engine: adaptive neuro-fuzzy method, Int. J. Sustainable
Aviation, 2(1) (2016), 1{14.
[27] C. Trozzi and R. Vaccoro, Methodologies for Estimating Air Pollutant Emissions From
Ships:a 2006 update, Environment and Transport 2th Internaional Scienti fic Sympo-
sium(including 15th conference Transport and Air Pollution) Reims, France: 12-14 June
(2006), 1{8.
[28] C. Trozzi and R. Vaccaro, Actual and Future Air Pollutant Emissions from Ships, Transport
and Air Pollution and Cost 319 Final Conference INRETS Graz, Austria 31 May 2 June
(1999).
[29] I. Yazar, Y. Sohret and T. H. Karako, ANFIS-based comparative exhaust gases emissions
prediction model of a military aircraft engine, Int. J. Global Warming, 12(1) (2017), 116{
128.
[30] D. Yildirim Peksen and G. Alkan, Economic and Environmental Contributions of Declara-
tion of the Marmara Region as Emission Control Area (ECA), IOSR Journal of Engineering
(IOSRJEN), 6(7) (2016), 47{57.